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Fishing Industry In Russia

Management

Fisheries management is regulated by Russian federal laws. The federal law “On Fisheries and Protection of Aquatic Biological Resources” of December 2004 (referred to below as the Law on Fisheries) divides fisheries into three main categories” industrial, recreational, and subsistence fisheries of indigenous groups. Industrial fisheries includes coastal fisheries. This definition has been challenged and is under review.

The Law on Fisheries requires that total allowable catch (TAC) levels are set for fishery stocks. It defines these levels as the cientifically justified annual catch of aquatic biological resources of particular species in a fishing area. However, the Law on Fisheries then goes on to state that industrial fisheries are not necessarily required to base their catch on TAC. The Law does not explain this further, but calls for the federal government to issue a special TAC setting statute. Pacific salmon is the main stock that will probably not have TAC, but will have regulated fishing effort instead.

The Law on Fisheries also gives a definition of a fishing unit area and sets general principles for their use. The compiling of lists of fishing unit areas is delegated to the regional authorities. The Law on Fisheries has gaps and its application is criticized by parliamentarians and stakeholders. It may be expected that in the coming years at least two new federal laws, “On Coastal Fisheries” and “On Aquaculture”, will be considered by Russian legislators.

Apart from TAC settings, fisheries are also regulated by the so-called Fishing Rules (Pravila rybolovstva). These rules are set separately for different geographical regions.

The Fishing Rules specify seasonal closures, closed areas, restrictions on specific gears such as retricting mesh sizes, minimum catch sizes, and restricted levels of allowable bycatch. Fisheries management has been changing since Soviet times, and further changes are likely.

The government has mismanaged the fisheries, with frequent restructuring of the institutions responsible for fishery management and control. Starting in 1992, the fishery authority has been reorganized at least five times. The head of the fishery authority was replaced seven times, and not one of these heads was a fishery professional. The issues involved in regulating fishing capacity were never really recognized. However, consistent fishery policies are starting to be developed now.

The extreme bureaucracy involved for a fishing vessel to make a port call and land fish results in coastal processing being bypassed. Instead, the seafood is just directly exported, unprocessed. Similarly, there are many bureaucratic difficulties in developing aquaculture. Getting a licence to use water and the necessary sanitary certificates is very time consuming, although it does guarantee environmental and health safety.

Artisanal

Fishing vessels off a jetty, believed to be Kostroma (Russia) Oil on canvas, 1839, by Anton Ivanov

There is no legally adopted term in Russia for artisanal fisheries. Artisanal or subsistence fishing usually refers to fishing mainly with traditional gear, with production delivered to the market but also used for subsistence. In Russia, the term covers also several kinds of fisheries classified as industrial, such as salmon, chars, whitefish, navaga, flounders and greenling fisheries in the Baltic, the Arctic and the Far Eastern Seas. Subsistence fishing by indigenous groups is also an issue. Indigenous fishers mainly work estuaries, lagoons and rivers (for anadromous fish). Legally, they are bound to use their catch for local consumption only. They are not allowed to sell their catch, but in reality, this is not always the case.

In Russia, poverty contributes to poaching and other threats to fishery resources. Poverty can leave people depending on natural resources to feed themselves. There may be little perceived incentive to protect fish and other aquatic life and to use them in a sustainable way. Lack of awareness and lack of public involvement in managing local resources can result in poaching, overfishing, and other kinds of illegal activities. Poaching by private individuals feeds the industrial IUU catch, and forms a vicious cycle.

The social impacts of traditional fisheries has rarely been analysed. The yearly fishing cycle still dominates life in the traditional fishing villages of the Pomor, dotted around the coast of the White Sea. Fishing has similarly influenced the life style of many indigenous groups, such as among settlers around the Pacific Coast, north of Siberia, and around the big lakes. In the late 1960s, administrative decisions were made to abandon many coastal villages and resettle people in larger settlements. This has disrupted the traditional ways and is associated with alcohol abuse and increased poverty. There is now a slow movement towards reviving cultural traditions. To succeed, there must also be a re-establishment of the sustainable fisheries that allowed such fishing communities to flourish.

Recreational

Recreational fishing occurs everywhere in Russia. The Fishing Rules do not distinguish recreational fishing from artisan fishing, so both are regulated under the same rules. In some areas,tourist fishing is growing.

In 1999, recreational and subsistence fishers took 4,300 tonnes, mostly perches and cyprinids. Later estimates are not available. The most significant recreational fishery by value is the Kola Peninsula Atlantic salmon fishery.

Industrial

Russia has three main industrial fisheries:

marine fisheries including brackish water and anadromous species, and estuarine fisheries

inland fisheries

aquaculture

Catch by fishery category, 2005

Category

Fishery zone

Catch

tonne

Percent

Comment

Marine

Coastal EEZ

69

Marine

Foreign EEZ

14.5

The reported catch in EEZs of foreign states is stable.

Marine

High seas

10

Catch on the high seas increased in the 2000s.

Inland

72,000

2.7

Inland fisheries are found everywhere in river basins and freshwater bodies, but the catch has constituted only a very small fraction of the total catch.

Aquaculture

3.6

Aquaculture (mainly freshwater) production is relatively small compared to capture fisheries, but is growing.

Wild fisheries

EEZ

Relief map of Russia

Russia’s marine fisheries are based on twelve seas from three oceans which surround Russia, the landlocked Caspian Sea, and the high seas beyond Russia exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

The three oceans are:

the Atlantic: with the Sea of Azov, Black Sea, Baltic, Barents Sea and White Sea

the Arctic Ocean: with the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea and Chuckchi Sea

the Pacific: with the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan).

Marine capture fisheries in Russia territorial seas, internal marine waters and the EEZ provided up to 75 percent of the total reported catch for 19962005.

External images

Russian exclusive economic zone

Russian fishery production timeseries

Russia’s EEZ

Area km

Asia

6,382,530 km

Baltic

24,549

Barents Sea

1,159,594

Total EEZ

7,566,673

Catch profile

The officially recorded annual value of fisheries is about US$ 5 billion, equivalent to 0.3 percent of GDP. The fishery sector has been stable in absolute terms in recent years, so its share of GDP has reduced as the general economy has expanded.

Fisheries data in tonnes

2003

Production

Imports

Exports

Food supply

Per capita

Fish for direct human consumption

3,389,932

815,155

1,374,894

2,481,542

17.3 kg

Fish for animal feed and other purposes

348,652

Due to the decreasing catch and a growing export to East Asian markets, Russian fisheries cannot meet current domestic demand for seafood. East Asian markets are more attractive to fishing enterprises than the domestic market. As a consequence, there are increasing imports for the affluent in big cities, with increasing subsistence and recreational fishing with its associated IUU catch.

Coastal fisheries

High seas fisheries

Inland fisheries

Omul fish, endemic to Lake Baikal. Smoked and on sale at Listyanka market.

The biggest inland water is the landlocked Caspian Sea. The biggest lakes are Baikal (23,000 km), Ladoga (19,100 km) and Onega (9,700 km). Russia has more than 2 million rivers, the largest of which are, in order, Severnaya Dvina, Pechora, Pechora, Pechora, Ob, Don, Yenisei, Lena, Kolyma, Indigirka and Amur. The most important inland fishing area is the Obrtysh River Basin (about 27 percent). Sixty species are caught in the inland fisheries of Russia. In volume terms, whitefish (Coregonidae), cyprinids, zanders and perch are most important. Set nets are the most common gear used in inland water commercial fisheries. Seines are also used on big rivers and lakes, and small trawls on the big lakes. In 2005, the official catch in the inland waters was 72,000 tonnes.

Inland fish catch in tonnes

Water bodies or drainage areas

2005

Percent

Main species


Ob-Irtysh catchment (West Siberia)

19,200

26.7

Enisei catchment

1,150

1.6

Lakes

Ladoga

2,900

4.0

cyprinids, perch and whitefish

      Onega

2,100

2.9

cyprinids, perch and whitefish

      Chudsko-Pskovskoye (Peipsi)

      (shared with Estonia)

4,000

5.6

cyprinids, smelt and coregonids

      Ilmen

1,380

1.9

      Baikal

2,500

3.5

whitefish

Water reservoirs

      Rybinsk

1,040

1.4

      Kuibyshevskoye

2,110

2.9

      Saratovskoye

600

0.8

      Volgograd (on the Volga)

1,720

2.4

      Tsimlyansk (on the Don)

6,900

9.6

cyprinids, perch and sander

Other areas

26,400

36.7

Total

72,000

100

In the past, sturgeon has been an important catch in the basin of the Sea of Azov and the Caspian Sea, and in Siberian Rivers and the Amur River. Currently, sturgeon stocks are heavily depleted and under constant pressure from poaching. Inland fisheries are regulated by the Law on Fisheries discussed above. However, few provisions refer specifically to inland fisheries, although there are specific regulations for same catchments and river systems. These regulations specify closed areas, seasonal closures, gear restrictions, minimum mesh sizes and minimum catch size.

Fishing fleet

The Russian fishing trawler Sergey Makarevich in the North Atlantic. It has just hauled its trawl onboard

According to the Russian State Marine Register, in 2002, the offshore fishing fleet contained about 2,500 fishing vessels, 366 transport vessels and 46 factory ships. Of the fishing vessels, 17 percent were longer than 64 metres (o/a), half were between 34 and 64 metres, and one-third were between 24 and 34 metres. Smaller boats are registered with the State Inspection of Small Size Fleet. In 2005, the marine small size fleet contained 2,491 boats, and the inland fleet contained 5,500 motor boats.

Fishing gears used are:

Midwater trawls used by processing trawlers and freezing for redfish and Alaska pollock.

Bottom trawls restricted use by medium and large sized trawlers, for demersal fishes such as halibut, cod, redfish, flounder.

Shrimp trawls used by specialised shrimp trawlers

Bottom nets used by small and mid size vessels for flounder, cod and halibut

Bottom seines deployed by small vessels for flounder, cod, halibut and other demersal fishes.

Drift nets used by mid size vessels, mainly for salmon.

Bottom longlines used for halibut, cod and redfish.

Traps and pots used by small and mid size vessels for shrimp, crabs and whelks,

Seines and pound nets for herring and whitefish

Dredges operated from small vessels for clams.

Small boats used with salmon kiddles (basketwork traps), and for skindivers harvesting scallops, sea urchins, kelp and sea cucumbers.

An important issue is the age of the Russian fishing fleet. About two-thirds of the fishing vessels do not conform to safety norms. Compared to 1990, by 2000 capital investment in the industry had decreased thirty percent and the number of specialists qualified in fishing, navigation and processing technologies had decreased 30 to 40 percent. The Barents Sea cod fishery is an example of the dominance of elderly and ineffective vessels. Between 2002 and 2005, forty percent of effort in the demersal fishery was by elderly freezing trawlers, which produced only twenty-five percent of the official catch. That is, they were 1.5 times less effective than the other vessels in the fleet. Equivalent modern trawlers are three to four times as effective. The low efficiencies of these elderly vessels also implicates them in involvements with IUU catch.

Decline of stocks

According to the FAO, important stocks have declined as the result of:

natural fluctuations: Pacific pilchard

a combination of natural fluctuations and overfishing: Atlantic and Pacific herring, Alaska pollock, capelin in the Barents Sea

overfishing and continuing IUU: sturgeons, Atlantic salmon, red king crab, sea cucumber

a combination of marine pollution and overfishing: whitefish and Atlantic salmon in the Pechora drainage basin, whitefish and sturgeon in the Ob drainage basin, most of the stocks in the Amur Basin

ecosystem transformation due to the introduction of invasive species: sprat in the Black and the Caspian Seas.

Aggravating factors surround the demand for seafood from East Asian markets, which encourage commercial fishermen to exhaust stocks in Russia EEZ. Russian illegal exporters have well oiled links to importers in Japan, China and South Korea. Criminal groups and corruption magnifies the effect, as the the short distances needed to transport seafood from south Kurils and south Sakhalin to Japan. Huge fish processing developments in China built on cheap labour encourage the export of further unprocessed fish.

Aquaculture

Over sixty species of fish, invertebrates and seaweed are commercially cultivated by aquaculture or fish farming in Russia. Aquaculture is based mainly on buffalo, grass and silver carp, rainbow trout, scallops, mussels and laminaria. In 2007 there were 300 aquaculture enterprises.

Aquaculture can be freshwater or marine (mariculture):

Freshwater aquaculture occurs northwest of European Russia where a lot of trout are farmed, in the Far East, and south of Siberia. Production 2003 to 2006 was about 100,000 tonnes.

Mariculture occurs mainly in Primorye Province on the coast of the Sea of Japan. In 2006, marine farms in Primorye covered 10,000 hectares, which produces 1,340 tonnes, mainly of Laminaria, blue mussel and the scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis.

Potential development areas for freshwater aquaculture include 960,000 hectares of agricultural water bodies, 143,000 hectares of ponds, plus other areas in big lakes and water reservoirs suitable for cage farming. The National Project on Agricultural Sector development (Federal Agency of Fishery, 2006) has set a target for 2020 of 1.4 million tonnes from freshwater aquaculture and 400 thousand tonnes from mariculture. The federal government is considering a subsidy of two-thirds of the credit needed to construct and modernise aquaculture facilities.

Research

In Soviet times, the Ministry for Fishery Industry operated many institutes which undertook comprehensive research in oceanography, marine biology, the assessment of fishery resources, fishery management regimes, and the technology of fishing gear and fish processing. The Ministry also operated research ship on the high seas to meet the needs of Russian distant water fisheries.

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, these institutes, basically responsible for research in fisheries science, were coordinated by VNIRO, the central fishery institute in Moscow.

In 2007, the regional institutes became formally subordinate branches of VNIRO. Notably, the GIPRORYBFLOT in St. Petersburg researches the technology of fishing vessels and fish processing, while the VIERH in Moscow does economic research.

Education

Five technical universities are geared to train specialists in fisheries. There are programmes for fisheries biology, navigation and marine engineering, fish processing, processing machinery, the economics of fisheries and aquaculture. Four professional schools graduate middle level professionals.

Nine universities graduate about 120 aquaculture specialists each year. The biological departments of several universities also graduate pecialists in fish biology and fishery oceanography.

The institutes that are traditionally of most importance are the St. Petersburg Hydrometeorological Institute, the geographical departments of St. Petersburg and Moscow universities, the biological department of Moscow State University, the Far Eastern National University, Kazan State University and Perm State University.

See also

Agriculture in Russia

Continental shelf of Russia

Notes

^ a b c CIA: Factbook: Russia

^ a b c Sea Around Us Project

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah FAO: [Profile for Russia]

^ a b c d FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture 2005 statistics.

^ a b c State Committee of Fishery of the Russian Federation Federal Agency of Fishery, 2006.

^ Zilanov VK (2007) Fishery problems in the professional eye.

^ Titova GD (2007) Bioeconomic problems of fisheries in national jurisdiction zones. St. Petersburg, VVM Ltd. Publishing, 367 p. (in Russian).

^ Tzetlin, A (2000) Traditional nature use on the White Sea. Ohrana dikoi prirody, 2: 1316 (in Russian).

^ Yatskevich, B.A., Pak, V.A., Rybalsky, N.G. (eds) (2000) Natural resources and environment of Russia. Moscow, Nia Priroda, Refia (in Russian).

^ Reshetnikov, 2002

^ a b c Ministry of Natural Resources, 2006

^ Zilanov, V (2001) Fish under law? Russia Today, 22: 5455 (in Russian).

^ State Committee for Fisheries, 2003.

^ Kalentchenko MM, Kozlovsky AN and Shevchenko VV (2007) Economic effectiveness of using the Russian fishery fleet in the Barents Sea. Series of technical reports owards sustainable fishery published by WWF Russia. Barents Ecoregion Office of WWF Russia, Murmansk, 53 p. (in Russian).

^ Mitupov, T (2007) Aquaculture in Russia. Answers of the head of the Investment Analytical Group orge-Fish Timur Mitupov to the questionnaire of the Norwegianussian Trade Chamber.

^ Markovtsev, V (2007) Fishery and aquaculture of the world. Rybak Primorya (in Russian).

References

Fish Industry of Russia  Production, Trade, Markets and Investment. Eurofish, Copenhagen, Denmark. 2006. http://www.eurofish.dk/indexSub.php?id=3308&easysitestatid=255998662. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 

External links

Pacific Rim Fisheries: Russian Federation, the Far East

Fishnet Russia – Business directory and trade leads portal

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Fishing industry by region

By country

Angola  Bangladesh  Benin  Canada  Chad  Chile  China  England  Ethiopia  Ghana  Guernsey  India  Japan  Maldives  Morocco  New Zealand  Portugal  Russia  Scotland  Turkmenistan  Uganda  United States

Fishing banks

Agulhas Bank  Dogger Bank  Flemish Cap  Georges Bank  Grand Banks  Hawkins Bank  Macclesfield Bank  Nazareth Bank  Princess Alice  Saya de Malha  Soudan Banks

By species

Alaskan king crabs  Alaskan salmon

Other areas

Alaska  Chatham Rise  North Sea

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Fisheries and fishing topic areas

Fisheries

Fisheries science  Wild fisheries  Oceanic habitats  Fish farming  Aquaculture  Fish diversity  Fish diseases  Fisheries management  Fishing quota  Sustainability

Fishing

Fisherman  Artisan fishing  Fishing villages  Fishing vessels  Fishing history

Industry

Commercial fishing  Processing  Products  Seafood  Marketing  Markets

Recreational

Angling  Game fishing  Fly fishing  Catch and release

Techniques

Gathering  Spearfishing  Line fishing  Netting  Trawling  Trapping  Other

Tackle

Hook  Line  Sinker  Rod  Bait  Lures  Artificial flies  Bite alarms

Locations

Fishing by country  Fishing villages  Fishing banks  Fish ponds

List of articles by topic areas  Alphabetical list of articles  Fisheries glossary

Categories: Fishing by country | Fishing in Russia

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Fishing Industry

Sectors

wild

 marine 

pelagic

 predator 

tuna

billfish

shark

forage

herring

sardine

anchovy

menhaden

 demersal 

cod

flatfish

freshwater

 farmed 

carp

salmon

tilapia

Commercially important finfish fisheries

There are three principal industry sectors:

The commercial sector: comprises enterprises and individuals associated with wild-catch or aquaculture resources and the various transformations of those resources into products for sale. It is also referred to as the “seafood industry”, although non-food items such as pearls are included among its products.

The traditional sector: comprises enterprises and individuals associated with fisheries resources from which aboriginal people derive products in accordance with their traditions.

The recreational sector: comprises enterprises and individuals associated for the purpose of recreation, sport or sustenance with fisheries resources from which products are derived that are not for sale.

Commercial sector

The commercial sector of the fishing industry comprises the following chain:

Commercial fishing and fish farming which produce the fish

Fish processing which produce the fish products

Marketing of the fish products

World production

FAO catch statistics, world catches 1950-2005 in million tonnes.

Main articles: World fish production and Fishing industry by country

Fish are harvested by commercial fishing and aquaculture.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the world harvest in 2005 consisted of 93.3 million tonnes captured by commercial fishing in wild fisheries, plus 48.1 million tonnes produced by fish farms. In addition, 1.3 million tons of aquatic plants (seaweed etc) were captured in wild fisheries and 14.8 million tons were produced by aquaculture.

Following is a table of the 2005 world fishing industry harvest in tonnes by capture and by aquaculture.

Capture

Aquaculture

Total


Fish, crustaceans, molluscs, etc

93,253,346

48,149,792

141,403,138

Aquatic plants

1,305,803

14,789,972

16,095,775

Total

94,559,149

62,939,764

157,498,913

This equates to about 24.4 kilograms a year for the average person on Earth.

Commercial fishing

Double-rigged shrimp trawler hauling in the nets

Main article: Commercial fishing

The top producing countries were, in order, the People’s Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan), Peru, Japan, the United States, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand, Norway and Iceland. Those countries accounted for more than half of the world’s production; China alone accounted for a third of the world’s production.

In the 1990s and 2000s it has become increasingly evident that industrial fishing has severely depleted stocks of certain types of ocean fish, such as cod.

Fish farming

Intensive koi aquaculture facility in Israel

Main articles: Aquaculture, Mariculture, and Fish farm

Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. Unlike fishing, aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled conditions. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments. Particular kinds of aquaculture include algaculture (the production of kelp/seaweed and other algae); fish farming; shrimp farming, shellfish farming, and the growing of cultured pearls.

Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosed pools, usually for food. Fish species raised by fish farms include carp, salmon, tilapia, catfish and cod. Increasing demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing operations have caused widespread overfishing. Fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein.

Fish processing

Tuna under the knife

Main article: Fish processing

Fish processing is the processing of fish delivered by commercial fisheries and fish farms. The larger fish processing companies have their own fishing fleets and independent fisheries. The products of the industry are usually sold wholesale to grocery chains or to intermediaries.

Fish processing can be subdivided into two categories: fish handling (the initial processing of raw fish) and fish products manufacturing. Aspects of fish processing occur on fishing vessels, fish processing vessels, and at fish processing plants.

Another natural subdivision is into primary processing involved in the filleting and freezing of fresh fish for onward distribution to fresh fish retail and catering outlets, and the secondary processing that produces chilled, frozen and canned products for the retail and catering trades.

Fish products

Sea urchin roe.

Main article: Fish products

Fisheries are estimated to currently provide 16% of the world population’s protein. The flesh of many fish are primarily valued as a source of food; there are many edible species of fish. Other marine life taken as food includes shellfish, crustaceans, sea cucumber, jellyfish and roe.

Fish and other marine life are also be used for many other uses: pearls and mother-of-pearl, sharkskin and rayskin. Sea horses, star fish, sea urchins and sea cucumber are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Tyrian purple is a pigment made from marine snails, sepia is a pigment made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish. Fish glue has long been valued for its use in all manner of products. Isinglass is used for the clarification of wine and beer. Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal.

In the industry the term seafood products is often used instead of fish products.

Fish marketing

Fresh seafood laid out on one of several floating barge vendors.

Main article: Fish marketing

Fish markets are marketplace used for the trade in and sale of fish and other seafood. They can be dedicated to wholesale trade between fishermen and fish merchants, or to the sale of seafood to individual consumers, or to both. Retail fish markets, a type of wet market, often sell street food as well.

Most shrimps are sold frozen and are marketed in different categories. The live food fish trade is a global system that links fishing communities with markets.

Traditional sector

Fishing in C Mau, Vietnam.

Main article: Artisan fishing

The traditional fishing industry, or artisan fishing, are terms used to describe small scale commercial or subsistence fishing practises, particularly using traditional techniques such as rod and tackle, arrows and harpoons, throw nets and drag nets, etc. It does not usually cover the concept of fishing for sport, and might be used when talking about the pressures between large scale modern commercial fishing practises and traditional methods, or when aid programs are targeted specifically at fishing at or near subsistence levels.

Recreational sector

Fly fishing in a river

See also: Recreational fishing

The recreational fishing industry consists of enterprises such as the manufacture and retailing of fishing tackle and apparel, the payment of license fees to regulatory authorities, fishing books and magazines, the design and building of recreational fishing boats, and the provision of accommodation, fishing boats for charter, and guided fishing adventures.

References

^ FAO Fisheries Section: Glossary: Fishing industry. Retrieved 28 May 2008.

^ Fisheries and Aquaculture in our Changing Climate Policy brief of the FAO for the UNFCCC COP-15 in Copenhagen, December 2009.

^ The wording of the following definitions of the fishing industry are based on those used by the Australian government

^ a b FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture

^ American Heritage Definition of Aquaculture

^ Royal Society of Edinburgh (2004) Inquiry into the future of the Scottish fishing industry. 128pp.

^ “ScienceDirect – Aquaculture : Comparative economics of shrimp farming in Asia”. www.sciencedirect.com. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4D-3T8P28T-F&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=48a8882e385af72d0dbdbacde67a9ebe. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 

External links

FAO Fisheries Information

World Fishing Today, news from fishing industry

Fish database (FishBase)

American Fisheries Society

NOAA Fisheries Service

One Fish

The Sunken Billions: The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform

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Fishing industry

Commercial fishing

Trawling  Pair trawling  Midwater trawling  Bottom trawling  Seining  Longlining  Trolling  Dredging  Fishing vessels  Power block

Fish processing

Fish factory  Factory ship  Fish preservation  Slurry ice  Stockfish  Smoked fish  Gibbing  Fish flake  Salted cod  Unsalted cod  Kippers  more…

Fish products

Seafood  Fish as food  Fish roe  Fish meal  Fish emulsion  Fish hydrolysate  Fish oil  Fish sauce  Shrimp paste  Seafood list  Crustaceans  Molluscs  more…

Fish marketing

Live food fish trade  Shrimp marketing  Chasse-mare  Fishmonger  Fishwife  Worshipful Company of Fishmongers

Fish markets

Billingsgate  Fulton  Maine Avenue  English Market  Scania  Tsukiji  more…

Area fisheries

World fish production  Fishing by country  Fishing banks  Other areas

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Principal commercial fishery species groups

Wild

Large pelagic fish

Mackerel  Salmon  Shark  Swordfish  Tuna (yellowfin, bigeye, bluefin, albacore and skipjack)

Forage fish

Anchovy  Capelin  Herring  Hilsa  Menhaden  Sardines  Shad

Demersal fish

Catfish  Cod (Atlantic, Pacific)  Flatfish (flounder, halibut, plaice, sole and turbot)  Haddock  Mullet  Orange roughy  Pollock  Smelt-whitings  Toothfish

Freshwater fish

Carp  Sturgeon  Tilapia  Trout

Other wild fish

Eel  Whitebait  more…

Crustaceans

Crab  Krill  Lobster  Shrimp  more…

Molluscs

Abalone  Mussels  Octopus  Oysters  Scallops  Squid  more…

Echinoderms

Sea cucumbers  Sea urchin  more…

Farmed

Carp (bighead, common, crucian, grass, silver)  Catfish  Freshwater prawns  Mussels  Oysters  Salmon (Atlantic, salmon trout, coho, chinook)  Tilapia  Shrimp

Commercial fishing  World fish production  Fishing topics  Fisheries glossary

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Fisheries and fishing topic areas

Fisheries

Fisheries science  Wild fisheries  Oceanic habitats  Fish farming  Aquaculture  Fish diversity  Fish diseases  Fisheries management  Fishing quota  Sustainability

Fishing

Fisherman  Artisan fishing  Fishing villages  Fishing vessels  Fishing history

Industry

Commercial fishing  Processing  Products  Seafood  Marketing  Markets

Recreational

Angling  Game fishing  Fly fishing  Catch and release

Techniques

Gathering  Spearfishing  Line fishing  Netting  Trawling  Trapping  Other

Tackle

Hook  Line  Sinker  Rod  Bait  Lures  Artificial flies  Bite alarms

Locations

Fishing by country  Fishing villages  Fishing banks  Fish ponds

List of articles by topic areas  Alphabetical list of articles  Fisheries glossary

Categories: Fishing industry

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