Tag Archives: Salmon

Fishing Industry In Russia


Fisheries management is regulated by Russian federal laws. The federal law “On Fisheries and Protection of Aquatic Biological Resources” of December 2004 (referred to below as the Law on Fisheries) divides fisheries into three main categories” industrial, recreational, and subsistence fisheries of indigenous groups. Industrial fisheries includes coastal fisheries. This definition has been challenged and is under review.

The Law on Fisheries requires that total allowable catch (TAC) levels are set for fishery stocks. It defines these levels as the cientifically justified annual catch of aquatic biological resources of particular species in a fishing area. However, the Law on Fisheries then goes on to state that industrial fisheries are not necessarily required to base their catch on TAC. The Law does not explain this further, but calls for the federal government to issue a special TAC setting statute. Pacific salmon is the main stock that will probably not have TAC, but will have regulated fishing effort instead.

The Law on Fisheries also gives a definition of a fishing unit area and sets general principles for their use. The compiling of lists of fishing unit areas is delegated to the regional authorities. The Law on Fisheries has gaps and its application is criticized by parliamentarians and stakeholders. It may be expected that in the coming years at least two new federal laws, “On Coastal Fisheries” and “On Aquaculture”, will be considered by Russian legislators.

Apart from TAC settings, fisheries are also regulated by the so-called Fishing Rules (Pravila rybolovstva). These rules are set separately for different geographical regions.

The Fishing Rules specify seasonal closures, closed areas, restrictions on specific gears such as retricting mesh sizes, minimum catch sizes, and restricted levels of allowable bycatch. Fisheries management has been changing since Soviet times, and further changes are likely.

The government has mismanaged the fisheries, with frequent restructuring of the institutions responsible for fishery management and control. Starting in 1992, the fishery authority has been reorganized at least five times. The head of the fishery authority was replaced seven times, and not one of these heads was a fishery professional. The issues involved in regulating fishing capacity were never really recognized. However, consistent fishery policies are starting to be developed now.

The extreme bureaucracy involved for a fishing vessel to make a port call and land fish results in coastal processing being bypassed. Instead, the seafood is just directly exported, unprocessed. Similarly, there are many bureaucratic difficulties in developing aquaculture. Getting a licence to use water and the necessary sanitary certificates is very time consuming, although it does guarantee environmental and health safety.


Fishing vessels off a jetty, believed to be Kostroma (Russia) Oil on canvas, 1839, by Anton Ivanov

There is no legally adopted term in Russia for artisanal fisheries. Artisanal or subsistence fishing usually refers to fishing mainly with traditional gear, with production delivered to the market but also used for subsistence. In Russia, the term covers also several kinds of fisheries classified as industrial, such as salmon, chars, whitefish, navaga, flounders and greenling fisheries in the Baltic, the Arctic and the Far Eastern Seas. Subsistence fishing by indigenous groups is also an issue. Indigenous fishers mainly work estuaries, lagoons and rivers (for anadromous fish). Legally, they are bound to use their catch for local consumption only. They are not allowed to sell their catch, but in reality, this is not always the case.

In Russia, poverty contributes to poaching and other threats to fishery resources. Poverty can leave people depending on natural resources to feed themselves. There may be little perceived incentive to protect fish and other aquatic life and to use them in a sustainable way. Lack of awareness and lack of public involvement in managing local resources can result in poaching, overfishing, and other kinds of illegal activities. Poaching by private individuals feeds the industrial IUU catch, and forms a vicious cycle.

The social impacts of traditional fisheries has rarely been analysed. The yearly fishing cycle still dominates life in the traditional fishing villages of the Pomor, dotted around the coast of the White Sea. Fishing has similarly influenced the life style of many indigenous groups, such as among settlers around the Pacific Coast, north of Siberia, and around the big lakes. In the late 1960s, administrative decisions were made to abandon many coastal villages and resettle people in larger settlements. This has disrupted the traditional ways and is associated with alcohol abuse and increased poverty. There is now a slow movement towards reviving cultural traditions. To succeed, there must also be a re-establishment of the sustainable fisheries that allowed such fishing communities to flourish.


Recreational fishing occurs everywhere in Russia. The Fishing Rules do not distinguish recreational fishing from artisan fishing, so both are regulated under the same rules. In some areas,tourist fishing is growing.

In 1999, recreational and subsistence fishers took 4,300 tonnes, mostly perches and cyprinids. Later estimates are not available. The most significant recreational fishery by value is the Kola Peninsula Atlantic salmon fishery.


Russia has three main industrial fisheries:

marine fisheries including brackish water and anadromous species, and estuarine fisheries

inland fisheries


Catch by fishery category, 2005


Fishery zone






Coastal EEZ



Foreign EEZ


The reported catch in EEZs of foreign states is stable.


High seas


Catch on the high seas increased in the 2000s.




Inland fisheries are found everywhere in river basins and freshwater bodies, but the catch has constituted only a very small fraction of the total catch.



Aquaculture (mainly freshwater) production is relatively small compared to capture fisheries, but is growing.

Wild fisheries


Relief map of Russia

Russia’s marine fisheries are based on twelve seas from three oceans which surround Russia, the landlocked Caspian Sea, and the high seas beyond Russia exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

The three oceans are:

the Atlantic: with the Sea of Azov, Black Sea, Baltic, Barents Sea and White Sea

the Arctic Ocean: with the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea and Chuckchi Sea

the Pacific: with the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan).

Marine capture fisheries in Russia territorial seas, internal marine waters and the EEZ provided up to 75 percent of the total reported catch for 19962005.

External images

Russian exclusive economic zone

Russian fishery production timeseries

Russia’s EEZ

Area km


6,382,530 km



Barents Sea


Total EEZ


Catch profile

The officially recorded annual value of fisheries is about US$ 5 billion, equivalent to 0.3 percent of GDP. The fishery sector has been stable in absolute terms in recent years, so its share of GDP has reduced as the general economy has expanded.

Fisheries data in tonnes





Food supply

Per capita

Fish for direct human consumption





17.3 kg

Fish for animal feed and other purposes


Due to the decreasing catch and a growing export to East Asian markets, Russian fisheries cannot meet current domestic demand for seafood. East Asian markets are more attractive to fishing enterprises than the domestic market. As a consequence, there are increasing imports for the affluent in big cities, with increasing subsistence and recreational fishing with its associated IUU catch.

Coastal fisheries

High seas fisheries

Inland fisheries

Omul fish, endemic to Lake Baikal. Smoked and on sale at Listyanka market.

The biggest inland water is the landlocked Caspian Sea. The biggest lakes are Baikal (23,000 km), Ladoga (19,100 km) and Onega (9,700 km). Russia has more than 2 million rivers, the largest of which are, in order, Severnaya Dvina, Pechora, Pechora, Pechora, Ob, Don, Yenisei, Lena, Kolyma, Indigirka and Amur. The most important inland fishing area is the Obrtysh River Basin (about 27 percent). Sixty species are caught in the inland fisheries of Russia. In volume terms, whitefish (Coregonidae), cyprinids, zanders and perch are most important. Set nets are the most common gear used in inland water commercial fisheries. Seines are also used on big rivers and lakes, and small trawls on the big lakes. In 2005, the official catch in the inland waters was 72,000 tonnes.

Inland fish catch in tonnes

Water bodies or drainage areas



Main species

Ob-Irtysh catchment (West Siberia)



Enisei catchment







cyprinids, perch and whitefish




cyprinids, perch and whitefish

      Chudsko-Pskovskoye (Peipsi)

      (shared with Estonia)



cyprinids, smelt and coregonids








Water reservoirs










      Volgograd (on the Volga)



      Tsimlyansk (on the Don)



cyprinids, perch and sander

Other areas






In the past, sturgeon has been an important catch in the basin of the Sea of Azov and the Caspian Sea, and in Siberian Rivers and the Amur River. Currently, sturgeon stocks are heavily depleted and under constant pressure from poaching. Inland fisheries are regulated by the Law on Fisheries discussed above. However, few provisions refer specifically to inland fisheries, although there are specific regulations for same catchments and river systems. These regulations specify closed areas, seasonal closures, gear restrictions, minimum mesh sizes and minimum catch size.

Fishing fleet

The Russian fishing trawler Sergey Makarevich in the North Atlantic. It has just hauled its trawl onboard

According to the Russian State Marine Register, in 2002, the offshore fishing fleet contained about 2,500 fishing vessels, 366 transport vessels and 46 factory ships. Of the fishing vessels, 17 percent were longer than 64 metres (o/a), half were between 34 and 64 metres, and one-third were between 24 and 34 metres. Smaller boats are registered with the State Inspection of Small Size Fleet. In 2005, the marine small size fleet contained 2,491 boats, and the inland fleet contained 5,500 motor boats.

Fishing gears used are:

Midwater trawls used by processing trawlers and freezing for redfish and Alaska pollock.

Bottom trawls restricted use by medium and large sized trawlers, for demersal fishes such as halibut, cod, redfish, flounder.

Shrimp trawls used by specialised shrimp trawlers

Bottom nets used by small and mid size vessels for flounder, cod and halibut

Bottom seines deployed by small vessels for flounder, cod, halibut and other demersal fishes.

Drift nets used by mid size vessels, mainly for salmon.

Bottom longlines used for halibut, cod and redfish.

Traps and pots used by small and mid size vessels for shrimp, crabs and whelks,

Seines and pound nets for herring and whitefish

Dredges operated from small vessels for clams.

Small boats used with salmon kiddles (basketwork traps), and for skindivers harvesting scallops, sea urchins, kelp and sea cucumbers.

An important issue is the age of the Russian fishing fleet. About two-thirds of the fishing vessels do not conform to safety norms. Compared to 1990, by 2000 capital investment in the industry had decreased thirty percent and the number of specialists qualified in fishing, navigation and processing technologies had decreased 30 to 40 percent. The Barents Sea cod fishery is an example of the dominance of elderly and ineffective vessels. Between 2002 and 2005, forty percent of effort in the demersal fishery was by elderly freezing trawlers, which produced only twenty-five percent of the official catch. That is, they were 1.5 times less effective than the other vessels in the fleet. Equivalent modern trawlers are three to four times as effective. The low efficiencies of these elderly vessels also implicates them in involvements with IUU catch.

Decline of stocks

According to the FAO, important stocks have declined as the result of:

natural fluctuations: Pacific pilchard

a combination of natural fluctuations and overfishing: Atlantic and Pacific herring, Alaska pollock, capelin in the Barents Sea

overfishing and continuing IUU: sturgeons, Atlantic salmon, red king crab, sea cucumber

a combination of marine pollution and overfishing: whitefish and Atlantic salmon in the Pechora drainage basin, whitefish and sturgeon in the Ob drainage basin, most of the stocks in the Amur Basin

ecosystem transformation due to the introduction of invasive species: sprat in the Black and the Caspian Seas.

Aggravating factors surround the demand for seafood from East Asian markets, which encourage commercial fishermen to exhaust stocks in Russia EEZ. Russian illegal exporters have well oiled links to importers in Japan, China and South Korea. Criminal groups and corruption magnifies the effect, as the the short distances needed to transport seafood from south Kurils and south Sakhalin to Japan. Huge fish processing developments in China built on cheap labour encourage the export of further unprocessed fish.


Over sixty species of fish, invertebrates and seaweed are commercially cultivated by aquaculture or fish farming in Russia. Aquaculture is based mainly on buffalo, grass and silver carp, rainbow trout, scallops, mussels and laminaria. In 2007 there were 300 aquaculture enterprises.

Aquaculture can be freshwater or marine (mariculture):

Freshwater aquaculture occurs northwest of European Russia where a lot of trout are farmed, in the Far East, and south of Siberia. Production 2003 to 2006 was about 100,000 tonnes.

Mariculture occurs mainly in Primorye Province on the coast of the Sea of Japan. In 2006, marine farms in Primorye covered 10,000 hectares, which produces 1,340 tonnes, mainly of Laminaria, blue mussel and the scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis.

Potential development areas for freshwater aquaculture include 960,000 hectares of agricultural water bodies, 143,000 hectares of ponds, plus other areas in big lakes and water reservoirs suitable for cage farming. The National Project on Agricultural Sector development (Federal Agency of Fishery, 2006) has set a target for 2020 of 1.4 million tonnes from freshwater aquaculture and 400 thousand tonnes from mariculture. The federal government is considering a subsidy of two-thirds of the credit needed to construct and modernise aquaculture facilities.


In Soviet times, the Ministry for Fishery Industry operated many institutes which undertook comprehensive research in oceanography, marine biology, the assessment of fishery resources, fishery management regimes, and the technology of fishing gear and fish processing. The Ministry also operated research ship on the high seas to meet the needs of Russian distant water fisheries.

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, these institutes, basically responsible for research in fisheries science, were coordinated by VNIRO, the central fishery institute in Moscow.

In 2007, the regional institutes became formally subordinate branches of VNIRO. Notably, the GIPRORYBFLOT in St. Petersburg researches the technology of fishing vessels and fish processing, while the VIERH in Moscow does economic research.


Five technical universities are geared to train specialists in fisheries. There are programmes for fisheries biology, navigation and marine engineering, fish processing, processing machinery, the economics of fisheries and aquaculture. Four professional schools graduate middle level professionals.

Nine universities graduate about 120 aquaculture specialists each year. The biological departments of several universities also graduate pecialists in fish biology and fishery oceanography.

The institutes that are traditionally of most importance are the St. Petersburg Hydrometeorological Institute, the geographical departments of St. Petersburg and Moscow universities, the biological department of Moscow State University, the Far Eastern National University, Kazan State University and Perm State University.

See also

Agriculture in Russia

Continental shelf of Russia


^ a b c CIA: Factbook: Russia

^ a b c Sea Around Us Project

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah FAO: [Profile for Russia]

^ a b c d FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture 2005 statistics.

^ a b c State Committee of Fishery of the Russian Federation Federal Agency of Fishery, 2006.

^ Zilanov VK (2007) Fishery problems in the professional eye.

^ Titova GD (2007) Bioeconomic problems of fisheries in national jurisdiction zones. St. Petersburg, VVM Ltd. Publishing, 367 p. (in Russian).

^ Tzetlin, A (2000) Traditional nature use on the White Sea. Ohrana dikoi prirody, 2: 1316 (in Russian).

^ Yatskevich, B.A., Pak, V.A., Rybalsky, N.G. (eds) (2000) Natural resources and environment of Russia. Moscow, Nia Priroda, Refia (in Russian).

^ Reshetnikov, 2002

^ a b c Ministry of Natural Resources, 2006

^ Zilanov, V (2001) Fish under law? Russia Today, 22: 5455 (in Russian).

^ State Committee for Fisheries, 2003.

^ Kalentchenko MM, Kozlovsky AN and Shevchenko VV (2007) Economic effectiveness of using the Russian fishery fleet in the Barents Sea. Series of technical reports owards sustainable fishery published by WWF Russia. Barents Ecoregion Office of WWF Russia, Murmansk, 53 p. (in Russian).

^ Mitupov, T (2007) Aquaculture in Russia. Answers of the head of the Investment Analytical Group orge-Fish Timur Mitupov to the questionnaire of the Norwegianussian Trade Chamber.

^ Markovtsev, V (2007) Fishery and aquaculture of the world. Rybak Primorya (in Russian).


Fish Industry of Russia  Production, Trade, Markets and Investment. Eurofish, Copenhagen, Denmark. 2006. http://www.eurofish.dk/indexSub.php?id=3308&easysitestatid=255998662. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 

External links

Pacific Rim Fisheries: Russian Federation, the Far East

Fishnet Russia – Business directory and trade leads portal

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Fisheries and fishing topic areas


Fisheries science  Wild fisheries  Oceanic habitats  Fish farming  Aquaculture  Fish diversity  Fish diseases  Fisheries management  Fishing quota  Sustainability


Fisherman  Artisan fishing  Fishing villages  Fishing vessels  Fishing history


Commercial fishing  Processing  Products  Seafood  Marketing  Markets


Angling  Game fishing  Fly fishing  Catch and release


Gathering  Spearfishing  Line fishing  Netting  Trawling  Trapping  Other


Hook  Line  Sinker  Rod  Bait  Lures  Artificial flies  Bite alarms


Fishing by country  Fishing villages  Fishing banks  Fish ponds

List of articles by topic areas  Alphabetical list of articles  Fisheries glossary

Categories: Fishing by country | Fishing in Russia

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Fly Fishing in Green River

Fishing is one of favorite past times or hobbies for many people. The thrill of having a big catch is the objective of this activity which makes it fun and exciting. There are many methods in catching fish and fly fishing is one of them.

Fly fishing is a very unique technique that uses artificial flies, fly rod and fly line. You could be able to catch fishes like salmon and trout. However, there are many fly anglers who use this method to catch other species such as carp, pike, pan fish, bass, snook, bonefish and red fish also. The fly line used is made up of plastic coating. Artificial flies come in different variants in terms of weight, size and color.

Most common natural materials used in making artificial flies are feathers or fur and horse hair connected to a hook. But recently, other types of materials are also used and have become very popular too. These flies are created to look attractive to the target species. The colors are chosen according to that of insects and baitfish of these species.

In later years, fly fishing became a popular sport too. Many clubs were established due to the increasing number of people taking up an interest on this activity. Many competitions were held that drew lots of participants from different places.
There are several fly fishing rivers identified suitable for such activity in the United States. Some of these rivers include Pit, Big Horn, Mc Cloud and the Green River in Flaming Gorge dam. The latter is the most popular among the rivers.

Green River naturally became famous because of its abundant trout. It is a perfect place for fly fishing not to mention that the river features a natural beauty making it a good place for camping.

Based on the records of the Division of Wildlife Resources, this river has a population of 20,000 fishes every mile. This ratio is simply advantageous both to beginners and pro fishers. There is little waiting time to catch fish with such abundance.
Green River is divided into three sections. The sections are assigned with letters A, B and C.

Section A is a seven mile stretch starting from the Flaming Gorge Dam to the Little Hole. There are more than a hundred thousand fishes in this section which makes it the most favorite among the three. There are available guides in the areas which can teach you fishing techniques as well as those areas where you can get a better catch. It is the favorite spot of beginners because it is easy to get a catch here. It is also a viable place for kayaking and rafting.

Section B is a nine mile stretch from Little Hole to Browns Park. It contains fewer fishes compared to Section A but sufficient enough to have a good catch. This is a good spot for fishers in the intermediate level. It is quite difficult to get a catch here that will require some acquired skills.

Section C is the most challenging. The fishes are wilder and spookier which makes it a favorite spot for highly skilled fishermen. It is normally not crowded here because only a few hobbyists will enjoy such a difficult catch. For the most challenging fly fishing experience, section B is the right place.

If you want to experience the adventure of fly fishing, it is important to visit any of the fly shops near the river so they could suggest which section is appropriate for your skills. They would also provide you with all the rules and regulations particular for fishing in Green River.

For more information on Fly Fishing Green River and Fly Fishing Snake River.Please visit our website.

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Fly fishing isn’t just a normal way of fishing because it uses specific tools to catch fish. . The most common associated fish caught with fly fishing tackles is trout and salmon, however pike, bass and carp are being caught as well.

The basic apparatus in fly fishing is the fly rod, fly line, artificial fly line and fly reel. Each part of the tackle has its own vita role in catching fish. First is the fly rod which is used to cast the fly line. The length will vary between 7 to 10 feet depending on the environment where you are fishing. Usually, fly rod are made from graphite and fibreglass and in some cases bamboo. By using other materials, the fly rod will become lighter or heavier and it may also become stiff or bendy. Therefore, follow the intended materials for ht fly rod to work perfectly.

Another part is the fly line which is a plastic coated line that can be found in variety of thickness. They also range in color but usually, bright colored fly line is used to attract the prey that is intended to be caught.

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Feel free to visit http://www.sammaka.com/ for more info about fly fishing guidelines and equipments.

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Fly fishing is a water sport and a very different fishing technique used to catch big game fish. The sport of fishing is also known as ‘angling’. Salmon and trout are the popular fish that are sought by anglers of fly fishing. In recent times other species of fish such as Bass, carp and pike have been added to the list of game fish that fly fishermen seek the world over. Fly fishing is believed to have originated in Macedonia in the 2nd century and has now become a popular sport among the European and American fishing community.

Fly fishermen have developed many different lures to attract the game they seek. They have also developed ways to cast and reel in the lure to hook the game that more often than not gets fooled into biting. Some of the lures that are popular among fly fishermen include:

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The babboo split cane is a popular fly fishing rod. This rod is made by splitting the bamboo into four lengths and gluing it together again over a solid core. Freshwater trout fishing is a fly fishing sport that demands this kind of bamboo rod for success. Synthetic fly fishing rods are making their presence known; however, the die-hard fly angler will stick to the traditional bamboo fly rod and tackle.

The line of the bamboo rod is usually made out of horse’s hair. This line needs to be regularly dried or it will rot. The silk line used for fly fishing has the same requirement. However, these days the synthetic nylon line is the best suited for fly fishing as the line is stronger and lighter than the traditional fly fishing line.

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Everywhere in the United States quite many exciting and beautiful places exist which are excellent for fly fishing. Following article highlights quite many of the places.

Sitka in Alaska

Sitka, Alaska is one stopover for salmon which heads to Washington, British Columbia, and many other Alaskan waters. In Sitka, the fly fishermen have higher rates of fishing catch compared to other marine areas in Southeast Alaska. To fish in this area the best month seems to be June.

Colorado River in Arizona

The Colorado River is at Lees Ferry in Arizona. It is one among the best spots for fly fishing spots, especially for rainbow trout. The fishes are comfortable whole year round in the 15-mile cold water stretch that flows from depths of Lake Powell and in between the Glen Canyon Dam and upper end of Grand Canyon. The fly fishermen could also book guides and go on flats fishing for around 25 pound carp.

Montauk Point in New York

Saltwater fly fishing would be at its best in Montauk Point, New York. Montauk Point is at the eastern most point in Long Island. It is widely known for the striper fishing. The fly fishermen have many miles of great shoreline where they could cast their fly.

The Gunpowder Falls in Maryland

Gunpowder Falls, Maryland, seems to be an excellent place for catching cold water trout. The deal for starting cold water releases from the Pretty Boy Dam was struck by Trout Unlimited and Maryland state authorities. This resulted in combinations of stocked brown and wild brook, and the rainbow trout. Many of the fly fishing camps is at Gunpowder Falls in State Park.

The Fishing Creek in Pennsylvania

Fishing Creek, Pennsylvania, has always been one among the state’s biggest wild trout streams. It usually stays cool all through the summer. There exists a five-mile stretch namely, the Narrows which is near Lamar and that is quite a popular area for the fly fishing activity.

Driftless Area in Wisconsin

Driftless Area, Wisconsin, too, has some great fly fishing streams which are loaded with brown trout. Furthermore, there is an excellent access to many of the southwestern Wisconsin’s eight countries and there are around 68 streams in the Vernon County alone. It includes the Kickapoo River and the Timber Coulee Creek. Quite many fly fishermen in the area use the mayfly and the caddis imitations.

The Laguna Madre in Texas

Laguna Madre, Texas, which is full of lakes and rivers that is often excellent fly fishing location. Texas has the southern coast too, which is the world’s largest salt-water fly fishing areas. Salt-water flats of the Laguna Madre which is next to the Padre Island are usually full of different varieties of fishes. It makes up for an unusually great experience in fly fishing.

Henry’s Fork in Idaho

Henry’s Fork, Idaho, holds to be another great destination choice for rainbow trout. If fishing near Island Park area, one could better fish in the runoff conditions.

Lake C. W. McConaughy in Nebraska

Lake C. W. McConaughy, Nebraska, which is the largest lake in the state, has quite good fly fishing done. An excellent fly fishing destination in Nebraska is Fremont Lakes State Recreation Area. It’s a series of around twenty sandpit lakes which are carved into Platte River basin. The Red Willow reservoir is one favorite spot of fly fishermen within the area.

Kauai in Hawaii

Kauai in Hawaii is another good destination for fly fishing smallmouth, largemouth, and peacock bass. The Garden Isle has excellent salt-water fly fishing, too.

Whether you like salt or fresh water fly fishing sport, there are lots of spots to fish across the United States which offer fly fisherman endless experiences and opportunities.

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